Welcome to the Lasik Authority of Singapore
LASIK is a type of eye surgery done to treat myopia or nearsightedness, astigmatism, and hypermetropia or farsightedness. An ophthalmologist does the surgery and has to be professional and well qualified to be eligible for the job. LASIK is also known as the laser eye surgery or laser vision correction surgery. This is a very safe and painless procedure and can be done on all people of the age 18 years and above. It involves the ophthalmologist to use a laser to reshape the cornea of the eye.
Standard Lasik Procedure:
A full medical exam of the eye is done, and the complete information of the present and past medical conditions is discussed. Also, the medications both prescribed and over the counter ones are discussed because they might sometimes affect the vision or the surgery.
During the LASIK surgery, the surgeon uses a surgical tool called Femtosecond laser or microkeratome to create a circular flap of the tissues on the outermost layer of the cornea.
Then the flap is folded back to have easy access to the inner layer of the cornea which is known as the stroma. The stroma is usually the defective part of the cornea in the case of myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. Now some of the tissues in the inner layer are removed using an excimer laser.
The laser uses an ultraviolet light beam for the removal of a few tissues from the inner layer of the cornea to reshape it so that the light falling on it is more accurately focused on the retina for a clearer vision.
In the case of the nearsightedness or myopia, the tissues of the cornea are flattened whereas in the event of farsightedness or hypermetropia a much steeper cornea is required. The Excimer laser is also useful in treating astigmatism. This is done by just smoothing the irregularities in the cornea and giving it a more smoother and regular shape.
After the procedure of reshaping the cornea is completed, the flap is placed back from where it was cut. The area where the cornea tissues were removed is covered, and the cornea is left to heal naturally.
The laser eye surgery is entirely safe and pain-free. It is usually completed within 15 minutes for the both eyes by the trained professionals. This is a permanent solution to the eye problems which means the person do not have to wear glasses or contact lenses for their entire lives.
Even though this surgery is completely safe and has been approved by the government authorities, there are some risks to it. The risks include overcorrection, or under correction of the defect, the problem may come back, and the result might not be permanent, some other visual aberrations may develop, the symptoms of dry eye may get worse or persist, and in the worst case scenario, the person may lose his/her vision completely. But, these are very rare cases when proper care is not taken while operation and proper tests are not done before the surgery.
The Three Main LASIK Procedures
LASIK or the laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis is one of the most popular surgical procedure for correcting the vision problems like myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. It is the fastest and the safest method for the corrections of these defects. All the patients who undergo this surgery are satisfied with the process, and only some complaints arise from the people who are treated by new doctors.
Before undergoing the procedure, the patient needs to go through some medical tests so the physician can determine what the problem is and how it should be treated. Once the medical tests are done, and everything is sorted, the doctor tells the patient about the type of LASIK he/she will have to go through. It is important to note that to undergo the LASIK surgery, the patient needs to be 18years or older. This age limit is set because scientifically a person’s organs mature by the age of 18 and the cornea of the eye would have reached its maturity.
The LASIK procedures are of three types namely the conventional LASIK, the Wavefront-optimized LASIK and the Wavefront-guided LASIK. Each of these procedures is described in details below:
Conventional LASIK is one of the oldest and the most reliable procedure and has helped a lot of people for many many years. It has been the first choice of many patients all over the world. The procedure of conventional LASIK was the initial form of LASIK that has now been further developed into two more branches. It is the cheapest of all the procedures. The steps in the Conventional Lasik surgery are:
A small flap is cut in the outer layer of the cornea with a tool named Microkeratome which is a very high-quality medical blade. This procedure has to be done with a lot of precision because if the lower layer is cut accidently, the whole eye gets injured.
The eye is lined up with the laser path. There are three small yet high-quality cameras that track the smallest which is micro-millimeter movement inside the eye. This is done so that the surgeon can easily see everything inside the first layer of the cornea.
The laser is then used to reshape the cornea and remove the extra cells from it.
After the reshaping has been completed, the surgeon takes the flap of the cornea and folds it back to the position it was supposed to be. The flap gets automatically attached to the rest of the layer in just a few minutes.
The process is very fast since the laser works swiftly and for the both eyes the time taken in operation is 15 minutes.
The person is unable to see as soon as the operation ends, but vision generally recovers significantly as time passes.
The procedure is painless, and a local anesthetic is injected to numb the eye so that the patient does not feel any pain or stress.
The local anesthesia also helps the patient to lie still while being operated on because the procedure needs to be so precise that even a small movement can harm the whole eye. A very low dose of Valium is used to make the person comfortable and totally relaxed.
The patients are advised not to expose their eyes to sunlight because that may cause more harm to the newly operated eye. The eyes are the most sensitive part of our body, and the sunlight or dust that might enter them may cause irritation to the recently operated area and injure the entire cornea.
The patients are advised to get a checkup done just a few days after the operation so that the doctor can see that everything is fine and also correct the defects as soon as possible.
Wavefront Optimized LASIK
Another type of LASIK treatment which is a little more advanced than the conventional LASIK is the wavefront-optimized LASIK. It is a type of treatment that is available on the wavelength laser. The treatment takes into account the patient’s eyeglass prescription, in addition to the curvature of the cornea and its thickness. The laser energy is applied in a different way in the periphery of the cornea. This technique has been known to cause fewer mistakes that usually occurs due to the conventional LASIK. This type comes under the custom LASIK. The steps in the procedure of Wavefront-optimized LASIK are:
The basic principle of the wavefront optimized Lasik is that the shape of the cornea is aspheric and the light rays fall on it at one sharp focus. The laser system does the removal of the tissues in a way that the natural curve of the cornea is still maintained.
Before the surgery, the eyeglass prescription of the patient is checked. But since the eyeglass prescription can be same for various people but each and person has a unique set of eyes. So to personalize each and every patient’s eye problems the curvature and the thickness of the cornea are also taken into consideration.
The patient is usually given a local anesthesia for them to sleep and rest while the surgeon completes the process. If a person keeps on moving, the procedure can cause permanent damage to the eye.
A few cameras of high quality are fixed near the person’s eye where the operation is about to happen to record everything and any small movement that takes place in the eye. This also helps the doctor to see exactly where he is making the cuts and where the user is being applied.
A flap cut from the outer layer of the cornea such that its shape is still maintained. This is the first, and the most precise step as just one mistake in the cutting of the flap can permanently damage the eyes of the patient.
The laser is now used to smoothen the cornea and clean any excess tissues that have accumulated on the cornea. In the case of myopia, the tissues of the cornea are flattened properly, in the case of hypermetropia the steeper cornea is required so the tissues are made steep, and in the case of astigmatism the tissues are adjusted accordingly.
After the tissues and the cornea has been adjusted its time to close the flap. The flap is gently placed at the place it was picked up from. Within a few minutes, the flap joins the rest of the lining and become a part of it again. The eye is left to heal on its own for some time.
The patients are given eye gears like goggles to save their eyes from any sunlight or dust that might cause irritation in the eye.
The regular checkup is done after a few days.
The Wavefront Guided LASIK is another type of LASIK and falls under the customized guided LASIK. It is referred to a type of custom LASIK that, also, to the basic refractive error also treats the specific alterations in the patient’s eye. The steps in the process of wavefront-guided LASIK are:
Before the surgery, a complete mapping of the eye is done in 3D to know the exact problems in them. Since the Wavefront-guided LASIK also treats high-level aberrations that were not treated by conventional and the wavefront-optimized LASIK the mapping is very important.
A set of machines and cameras are set in a row with the laser so that the surgeon knows where to make the cut and what tissues to clean.
The small flap is cut from the outermost layer of the cornea with the utmost precision so that no part of the eye gets harmed.
The laser is used clean the small tissues including aberrations like cataract apart from myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. The basic goal here is to make the eye more optically perfect.
After the laser treatment is done, the flap is picked up and gently placed back on the part where it was cut from. It does not take a lot of time for the cornea cells to get joint. The eye is then left to heal.
The process is only complete when the person starts to see properly after several hours.
The patients are advised to protect their eyes from the dust and the sun so that the recently operated eye does not get any infections or is not injured due to the dust particles.
The wavefront-guided LASIK is the most advanced of all the LASIK. It is way better and safer than the conventional form. This is, therefore, a little costlier than the traditional ways. But the best part is that you do not have to wear glasses or contact lenses anymore. Apart from this, the other eye diseases apart from basic myopia and hypermetropia are also treated.
These are the three main types of LASIK. Each of them has its significance, and the cheapest of them is the conventional LASIK surgery. It is to be made sure that before searching for any LASIK treatment, see whether the doctor is experienced because you should not be taking any kinds of risks with the most sensitive part of your body i.e. your eyes.